A. Population Count and Trend
- Monkayo is composed of one urban barangay and 20 rural barangays. Among the cities and municipalities in the Davao region, Monkayo ranked 9th in terms of population size with 94,908 persons and ranked 1st in the Province of Compostela Valley based on the 2015 census with a population density of 160 inhabitants per square kilometer.
- Of the 21 barangays in Monkayo, the largest in terms of population size is Poblacion with 17,435 persons that is accounted 19.04% of the municipal’s total population based on RCBMS (2016). It is followed by Mt. Diwata with 10,201 persons and Casoon with 6,283 persons. San Isidro is the least populous barangay with 1,417 persons. It is followed by Mamunga (1,662) and Inambatan (1,745).
- The population of the municipality is projected to increase by 1.47% in 2020 with a projected population of 122,453 persons and 1.37% in 2025 with a projected population of 131,069 persons as revealed in the regression equation y = 9915.8ln(x) + 66872. Refer to Figure 7.
- In terms of the distribution by sex, sex ratio is higher than 100 indicating that there is a predominance of male population in the municipality, with males comprising 52.55% or 48,124 men. Refer to Table 5.
Sex-Disaggregated Population per Barangay
|Barangay||Male||Female||Total||% to Total|
Source: RCBMS, 2016
- As it can be gleaned in Figure 8, Brgy. Poblacion has 4,050 households or 18.89% recorded followed by Brgy. Mt. Diwata with 2,498 households or 11.65%. The barangays of San Isidro, Mamunga and Inambatan have the least number of households with 341, 410 and 432, respectively with 4.4 average household size.
- The projected total number of households in 2020 and 2025 are 27,556 households and 29,459 households, respectively.
B. Age-Sex Structure
Moreover, it can be observed that Monkayo has a very young population comprising to 10,239 children or 11.22% followed by persons aged 10-14 and 15-19 years old comprising to 10.73% and 10.36% of the population, respectively. Surprisingly, there are 3,820 persons who are 65 years old and above that is Refer to Figure 9.
C. Labor Force
Of the total population, 70.83% or around 67,220 persons (RCBMS, 2016) are of working age.
Unemployed labor force was estimated at 156 persons or about 0.28% of the economically-active population. Overall, this puts Monkayo in a favorable situation of reaping the demographic dividend (where economically active members of the population far outnumber the young and the aged). Refer to Figure 10.
Moreover, the total dependency ratio or a measure showing the number of dependents, aged zero to 14 and over the age of 65, to the total population, aged 15 to 64 is 58.97%. This gives an insight into the amount of people of nonworking age compared to the number of those of working age. The child dependency ratio is 52.32% while aged dependency ratio is 6.65%.
D. Persons with Disability
Figure 11 presented the different kinds and varying degrees of disabilities and accounted the total number of persons with disability in the municipality with 832 persons or 0.91% of the population. Persons who suffered from illness specifically mild stroke accounted the highest number with 248 persons. These persons experienced from inability to move one side of their body, numbness on one side of the body or difficulty speaking.
E. Population Density
Based on PSA standards, Monkayo has two barangays categorized as urban. These are the barangays of Poblacion and Mt. Diwata. There are 136 residents per hectare making it the most densely populated municipality in the Province of Compostela Valley, using the land area of 69,289 hectares as base. Mt. Diwata registered with the highest population density of 2,177 residents followed by Poblacion with 389 persons. The least populated barangays are Inambatan and Mamunga with 52 and 59 residents per hectare, respectively.
F. Religious Affiliation
In the RCBMS (2016) result, of the total population Roman Catholic has the biggest number of members with 70.43%, followed by Iglesia Ni Cristo with 3.28%, Seventh Day Adventist with 1.97%, Islam with 1.71%, Aglipay with 1.06% and other percentages is spread out to other religious affiliations.
Many of the indigenous peoples still had religious beliefs clinging to the old spiritual practices. Believers of this sort, however, were drastically reduced during the American colonial times when non-Catholic Christian faith were introduced in the Philippines, notably Protestants and Baptist affiliations and the proliferation of Filipino-based religious sects. Today, indigenous peoples in Monkayo are members of various religious denominations dominated by the Roman Catholicism (39%), with Protestants a close 35%. The survey also includes non-differentiated sects that consist of 19%.
G. Ethnicity and Languages/Dialects
Monkayo is known as the melting pot of the tribes, hence the ancestral domain has been recognized as belonging to the unified Mandaya, Manobo, Mangguangan and Dibabawon indigenous communities. Throughout the centuries inter-marriages among the tribes have blurred the ethnicity for some, but have also reinforced the bonds between the four tribes. Government policies with respect to land acquisition and other developments have led to migration from indigenous peoples from other territories, as well as non-IPs. This migration was further exacerbated by the 1980s gold rush in Diwalwal.
In Table 6, it can be gleaned that 83.51% of the population in the municipality distinguished themselves with tribal ancestry.
The ethnicity of the indigenous peoples who are occupying the ancestral domain is composed mainly of the Dibabawons who make up 44% of the indigenous peoples’ population, and followed closely by the Mandayas with 40%. The Manobos and the Manguangans both have an equal 8% share of the population.
The five most spoken dialects in the municipality are Cebuano with 32,200 persons utilized the dialect in daily informal conversations comprising to 33.95% of the total population, followed by Boholano with 14,315 persons or 15.10%, Mandaya with 13,488 persons or 14.22%, Binisaya/Bisaya with 9,855 persons or 10.392% and Hiligaynon/Ilonggo with 5,397 or 5.59%.
Source: RCBMS, 2016
H. Poverty Incidence
Poverty in the municipality remains a challenge for LGU of Monkayo. The growing prevalence of poverty needs efficient solutions and this can be done by managing the local cities and municipalities to easily identify the factors that affect poverty. Despite the many efforts of both national and local governments and even by some of the non-government organizations in their poverty alleviation programs, the poverty incidences at the municipality and barangay level in Monkayo remains alarming.
Using the self-rated approach to measure poverty in RCBMS, there are 12,771 households of 59% lived below the poverty line. Furthermore, Awao and Casoon had the highest poverty incidence at the barangay level with 70% of their total households, it is followed by San Isidro and Rizal with 69% and 66%, respectively. However, Poblacion registered the lowest poverty incidence with 46% or 4,039 households. Refer to Table 7.
Proportion of Households with Income Below the Poverty Threshold
(Php 22,858/capita/year income)
(no. of HHs)
|Total HHs income in the Barangay||Individual HH income|
Source: RCBMS, 2016