Tradition says it was from kalaw, as high-perched hornbill that Monkayo got its original name. Actually, it was Fr. Saturnine C. Urios, a Jesuit, who founded the settlement at Bucana, now part of barangay Banlag, and gave it the name Moncayo. The settlement was formally recognized in July 1879 in an area at the convergence of Agusan and Manat rivers. At the time, the village was composed only of 30 families. Later, it expanded to 62 in 1884, and in 1890 grew to 184. To lead it, Dagohoy, a Dibabawon datu, was appointed as its first gobernadorcillo, or mayor.
‘Moncayo’ was derived from Mons Caunus (Latin) or Monte Cano (Italian), which means “white mountain,” and is the name of a snow peak in the Sierra del Moncayo and the Sistema Iberico, Spain. The Spanish mountain’s summit hosts the statue of Virgin of Pilar, patron saint of Aragon. It is close to Veruela, a foothill region.
Earlier, on Jan. 25, 1877, Fr. Domingo Bove, SJ, made the first missionary stopover there. He arrived by boat near the bar of Manat, in front of the house of Dagohoy. The visit was not about conversion but about a trail that would bring him to Davao via the short route.
More than a year after Monkayo was founded the settlement was already a beehive of human activity. It had now many houses and a convento (rectory). By January 1881, construction of the church became frenzied. But the coming of the annual flood at the confluence of Agusan and Manat rivers would force the transfer the settlement to higher grounds. Fr. Urios agreed to move the old reduction to a place where a road could be built accessing the Salug area by horse.
A 1903 travel account provides a fairly good description on where the original town site was erected. A. Henry Savage Landor, a well-travelled English explorer, wrote:
“Lower Gandia [Mamunga] was a few hundred yards down the river, and hemp and banana plants seemed plentiful there. The Mamunga tributary was left behind on our right, and on our left we came to Tonud, an entirely Visayan settlement of eight houses; then to the Ulit (sic) River again on my right, and soon after to Nuevo Moncayo, not far from where the Old Moncayo existed. One Visayan house was solidly built, but the others, which were of great height, were tumbling down or lying at dangerous angles. After leaving this village the right bank of the Agusan was thirty feet high and vertical, with great growths alternately of bananas and bamboos.”
When the Americans set up a Philippines Constabulary (PC) headquarters in Monkayo to contain banditry and tribal strife, they named it Camp Kalaw. The camp was a replacement of the dismantled Spanish tercio base camp. It was under American supervision until it turned over to Filipinos.
For a brief period in 1913, 3rd Inspector Eriberto B. Misa, a 1912 Philippine Military Academy alumnus from Bolinao, Pangasinan, later director of Bureau of Prisons (1937-1949), was assigned in Monkayo; he called the camp a “wretched post.” Though his stint was short, the Manobo remembered him as the young officer who brought along his Spanish mestiza wife to live among the natives.
In 1930, Captain Antonio S. Hernandez, a surgeon, was installed head of the campsite. Other officers who served the camp that year were First Lt. Mauro F. Feraren, a dental surgeon, as deputy, and First Lt. Lamberto B. Caños. Hernandez was relieved by First Lt. and Medical Inspector Hospicio L. Solidum, who was given the Surigao and Butuan areas as added assignments. Caños was the PC officer who solved the March 3, 1933 killing of three Japanese in Sirawan, Santa Cruz. The killers were found guilty by the Court of First Instance of Davao of triple murder.
World War II
During World War II, Monkayo became an important military outpost. It was at the poblacion that the 81st Military Division under the command of Col. Ruperto Kangleon set up camp and retained its old name as Camp Kalaw. In January 1942, he was appointed regimental commander of the 81st Infantry, or the Agusan-Davao Sector. When Bataan feel in May 1942 and the Americans surrendered, he submitted the control of Camp Kalaw to the Japanese. He was imprisoned in Butuan, making him the highest ranking USAFFE officer to surrender in Monkayo.
Tomas P. Saludares, a native of Dingras, Ilocos Norte who was married to Rosario Ibañez, a Monkayo native, was a first sergeant of the 5th Davao Company, PC, stationed in Moncayo before the outbreak of the war. When conflict erupted, he was assigned with the intelligence unit of the 81st Infantry in the northern sector of Davao. He joined the resistance movement where he was a commissioned officer, company commander, and battalion adjutant in the guerrilla outfit under by Col. Claro Laureta, the hero of the Battle of Ising (Carmen, Davao del Norte). On March 18, 1966, he died of stomach cancer in Mandaluyong and was buried at the Fort Bonifacio’s Libingan ng mga Bayani. His remains have since been re-interred at the Davao Memorial Park.
The opening of the 183-km Davao-Butuan Road on Nov. 21, 1960, opened the undivided province of davao to logging concessions. Areas considered wild and inaccessible became easy target for the waves of migration that followed. The all-weather, permanent road was realized through the International Cooperation Administration, which invested US$27 million worth of equipment, steel, and other materials. The Philippine government contributed a counterpart share of P54 million. Effectively, the project linked the 250-km stretch that separated the cities of Davao and Butuan.
The far-reaching impact of this new initiative was not lost in terms of economic gains. The logging industry was enhanced, food production expanded due to cheaper transport and access, new agricultural areas, estimated at 300,000, were opened to small and medium-scale plantations, and the mining of natural resources was greatly improved.
Quarter of century earlier, in late 1938, Gen. Paulino T. Santos, then commanding chief of the Philippine Army, and a party of technical men from the National Economic Council, the College of Agriculture, and the bureaus of Science, Plant Industry, Animal Industry, Forestry, and Lands, surveyed huge swaths of land in Mindanao and chose three sites for development. The preferred areas were North and South Koronadal, Kidapawan (now a city), in Cotabato, and the Compostela-Monkayo District in Davao. Collectively, these areas had a total area of 200,000 hectares of fertile farm lands.
Since its creation in 1879, Monkayo has had a long history of flooding, most of them due to the overflowing of Agusan River. The worse on record took place on Jan. 22-24, 1916 when floods hit many parts of Mindanao, In Agusan Province the losses were massive where the swelled rivers rose to an average of 25 feet above the ordinary level. The towns that bore the brunt of flooding were one meter or more under water and in other areas as high as three to five meters. At Moncayo, water was measured at around 35 feet above its ordinary level, and the town was practically destroyed.
The most destructive floods to hit town actually took place in 1913, 1926, 1936, 1954, and 1966. Records show that in 1926, Agusan River swelled with water reaching 30 feet, literally submerging the entire town and forcibly sending people to higher grounds. Even houses on stilt near riverbanks were not spared from the inundation.
In the post-war period, the experts blamed the almost annual swelling of the mighty Agusan River to deforestation and the rise of riverbank settlements that affected the natural flow of the waterway. As mining spillovers and tailings were drained from the mountainous tunnels, erosion led to siltation and then to the narrowing of river banks. As a result, the colonial government promptly established climate observatories. As of Jan. 1, 1920, Monkayo became one of four weather stations in Davao and one of three volunteer or cooperative stations under the Weather Bureau.
Pre-1931 American-era records also showed the recurrence of earthquakes in Monkayo, most of them intensity three in the Rossi-Forel scale. Earlier geologic studies indicated the tremors could have been due to the proximity of the town’s location to the Philippine Fault, a 1,200-km earthquake line originally believed to extend up to Davao Gulf from the north. A 1994 oceanographic survey conducted by the French research vessel L’Atalante disputed this. Scientists found that the earthquake line “cuts across from the Surigao Peninsula to Mati, Davao Oriental and loses its strength and motion in Pujada Bay entering the Moluccas Sea.”
Typhoon of 1912
In 1912, Monkayo, an interior region, was hit by a typhoon. Based on the missionary letters, the vortex of the freak storm entered Mindanao via the northern sector of Baganga and south of Cateel on Nov. 27 before crossing Agusan River between Jativa and Compostela. The observation was from the people on board steamer Fernandez Hermanos in Bislig, and those in the stations of Davao and Cagayan. Fr. Bernardino Llobera, a missionary in Caraga, gave a detailed account of the storm.
The convent at Manay had its roof entirely removed and the church destroyed along with several neighborhood houses. In Santa Fe, the church, courthouse, and more houses collapsed. At Manurigao and Baculin the story was no different. Baganga was completely ruined, while five houses remained standing in Cateel. Fr. Raimundo Villa, SJ, assigned in Cateel, said the people told him no typhoon of equal severity was felt in the place since its existence, and it took a decade to recover from its effects.
Fr. Cristobal Sastre, stationed on the Agusan, reported that the “typhoon destroyed all the towns of the higher Agusan, especially those between Jativa and Compostela. The two walls of vegetation on each side of river that shut in the view completely have entirely disappeared. Many trees were uprooted and the rest being stripped clean of leaves. In none of the towns struck by the typhoon could I find a house in which to lodge, as they had been all swept away by the fury of the storm.”
On Dec. 4, 2012, after a century of lull, Monkayo was devastated by super-typhoon ‘Pablo.’
Monkayo, now a thriving first-class municipality, is still home to four but diluted tribes and subtribes, namely: Mandaya, Manobo, Dibabawon, and Mangguangan.
Regarded as an elite tribe, the Mandaya is the “oldest and the most illustrious of the peoples” in Davao region, its affinity to Kamayu or Kamayo (Mandaya for “yours”). They sung hymns of praise called tudom and long epic narratives known as owaging, danced and held rituals, chewed betel nuts, believed in polygamy, prayed to the spirits and other lesser gods, and feasted on animals caught in a pangayaw (hunting). They wore skirts and dagmay woven from abaca and dyed with hues extracted from sikalig, a kind of shrub. Mandaya women are restricted from exposing their body nude.
In the last decades of the 19th century, Dr. Joseph Montano, a French anthropologist who visited the Mandaya areas, called the Mandayas as the “aristocracy of the Mindanao tribes,” or in some accounts “los Españoles de Mindanao.” The can still be found in the sub-Caragan regions near the common boundary of Compostela Valley, Agusan del Sur, Davao Oriental, and Surigao del Sur but without the customary adornments such as the traditional earrings, nose pierces, and body tattoos.
The Manobo possessed a hierarchy, with the bagani holding the reins of power. Though he held the clout, most baganis were not always keen in attacking settlements knowing that a community organized by missionaries always enjoyed special Spanish concern and military protection. Traditionally, they lived on coastal strips or along the riverbanks. For them to be converted to Christianity, the missionaries had to encourage them to move to small townships that served as the heart of the residential area. Generally, converts were classified into two groups, namely “those who lived in the town (poblacion or cabecera); and those in the barrios which were more or less distant, more or less isolated, and therefore were infrequently in contact with the church or civil authorities.”
Manobo houses used bamboo and nipa for roofing and walls and round timbers for main posts. A boundary system defined by building a fence around the house was an evolving practice when the missionaries first arrived. To ensure a steady supply of water, especially during rainy days and when flooding swelled the riverbanks, they dug wells. The Manobo is one of three tribes under a larger group, the Kalagan, lumped together with the Mansaka and Tagakaolo (from caoyo, “headwater”).
The Dibabawon, a Manobo sub-tribe, “were great braggarts and fanatic in their opinion; they were polygamous and had such cruel manners that for no reason at all they would kill each other.” To assuage them, the Mandaya had to give them slaves to keep them contented; otherwise, they would kill and harm other tribes. Traditionally, they occupied the Monkayo-Salug area, along the riverbanks but on the elevated sections. Known for their cruel manners and short temper, they are actually related to the Manobo due to its “language, general culture, and religious belief, and by genealogy.”
The sub-tribe is also known for their combs that had a band of beaten silver laid across the convex part above the teeth were known to have come from the Dibabawons of Monkayo or from a composite group living in the upper section of the river.
A close kin of the Dibabawon tribe, the Mangguangan chiefly populate only the regions of New Corella, they still practice some of old tribal customs. In farming, they embrace the kaingin (swidden) farming, and live in highly dispersed communities with their mostly nuclear families. A Mangguangan house is known as the tog’gan, a raised domicile that uses sturdy, round timbers as posts. It has walls that are from the bark of a lauan (Shorea negrosensis), with its low hipped gable roof made from rattan leaves lashed on bamboo laths. The interior of the house is the abohan (hearth), while at the sides are the sinabong, raised platforms used as private quarters.
From 1879 to 2017, Monkayo has been under two gobernadorcillos, 10 municipal district presidents, 4 appointed mayors and successors, 2 officers-in-charge, and 8 post-Edsa elected mayors, namely: Gobernadorcillos: Luis Dagohoy (1879-80); and Jose Andipan (1881-85);
Municipal district presidents: Lino Cervantes (1917-20); Adolfo Mongado (1921-29); Ignacio Cervantes (1930-34); Ildefonso Labrador, Sr. (1936-38); Pedro Aroma (1936-37); Jose Ibañez (1938-39); Policarpio Aquino. Sr. (1939-40); Feliciano Cervantes (1941-43); Anotnio Superable (1944-45); and Julian de la Cruz (1945-54); Appointed mayors: Angelo S. Ortiz (1954–1955); Alejandro D. Peñaranda (1955; 1964-66); Severino C. Lacson (1956–1963); Cecilia A. dela Paz (1966);
Elected mayors and officers-in-charge (OIC): Jose M. T. Amacio (1964-1972); Anastacio C. Basañes (1972–1986); Constantino T. Alcaraz (1986-1987; 1988-1992); Mariano Damayo Umpad (1987–1988); Rizal G. Gentugaya (1992-1998; 2003-2004); Avelino Tingson Cabag (1998-2001); Joel B. Brillantes (2001-2003); Manuel B. Brillantes, Jr. (2004–2013); Joselito B. Brillantes (2013-2016); and Ramil L. Gentugaya (2016-2019).
A. Geographical Location, Accessibility and Land Area
- The Municipality of Monkayo is located in the Northern most part of Compostela Valley Province. It lies on the grid squares 7°42’ to 8°00’, latitude 125°57’ to 126°12’ longitude and bounded on the north by the Province of Agusan Sur, somewhere in the 8th parallel, to the south by the Municipalities of Compostela and Montevista, to the west by the Municipality of Laak and east by the Municipality of Boston, Davao Oriental. Refer to Figure 1.
- From Davao City, the municipality of Monkayo is 120 kilometers away and is approximately a three-hour bus ride traversing along the Philippine-Japan Friendship Road/Maharlika Road/Asian Highway 26.
- In the Northwestern Section, access can be made through a graveled road traversing through Barangays Banlag and San Jose, towards the Northwestern boundary with Laak. The road in Crossing Sarmiento, Barangay Banlag will proceed to Sitio Liwanag thence to Barangay Awao. Another road leads from national highway near the Iglesia ni Cristo Church going up to Barangay San Jose center, going up to Sitios Tag-usab, Totoy, Mabuhay and Barangay Awao.
- In the Northeastern Section, a one lane road beginning from Crossing Haguimitan towards the interior parts of the barangay ending up in Agusan River. A road from National Highway (Barangay Baylo) towards Lower and Upper Buay and towards Mt. Diwata within DMPI logging road. Another road from National Highway (Barangay Pasian area) towards Sitio Odiongan and other sitios located in Mt. Pasian in PICOP road 7.
- In the Southeastern Section, the main access road in this section starts from National Highway, (Petron Station) and passes through Barangays Salvacion, Union and Tubo-Tubo, and towards Barangay Naboc. Turning left at Brgy Union rotunda is a road leading to Barangay Upper Ulip and Barangay Mt. Diwata. A road beginning from Salvacion center leads towards interior Buay, going up the PICOP road. A trail from Upper Ulip is used to reach Sitio Matangad.
- At the East-West Territory, a road emanating from the National Highway cuts across Barangay Poblacion center towards Purok 12 to Sitio Lower Ulip, Magas, Mamonga, Babag and Macopa up to Monkayo and Compostela boundaries (Pilar and Mangayon). A provincial road crossing with the National Highway at Km. 113, is the access to Brgys. Inambatan and Macopa.
- Monkayo has a total land area of 69,289 hectares comprising 21 barangays. The newly created barangays is Mt. Diwata through Provincial Ordinance No. 01 series 1987. This was previously part of barangay Upper Ulip. The Municipality’s land area is 15% of the total land area of Compostela Valley Province which 466,693 hectares. Refer to Table 1.
Land Area by Barangay
|Percent to total|
Source: MPDO, Monkayo
B. Topography and Slope
- The topography of the municipality is characterized by extensive mountain ranges and vast rolling area with uneven distribution of lowlands.
- The mountains are naturally endowed with rich forest. Mt. Olagusan on the northwest serves as the boundary between the Municipality of Monkayo and the Municipality of Asuncion. Barangays situated in this area are: Olaycon, Banlag, San Isidro, San Jose, Casoon and Awao. In the northwest Mt. Agtuuganon serves as the boundary between Monkayo and the Municipalities of Cateel and Boston, Davao Oriental. The barangays found along the lowland areas are the following: Macopa, Babag, Naboc, Mamunga, Tubo-Tubo, Union, Salvacion, Mamunga, Inambatan, Baylo, Jaguimitan, Rizal, Pasian, and Poblacion. Barangays which have high elevation are Mt. Diwata and Upper Ulip. Refer to Figure 2.
- In terms of elevation, only 1,140 hectares or 4.15% are within 1000 masl, hence considered protected area. This is located along the Mt. Diwata range. All the rest are within the area classified under the National Physical Framework Plan as production forest or productive lands.
C. Soil Type and Slope Classification
- The Municipality of Monkayo is predominantly occupied by complex volcanic mountains covering to 32.74% or 22,686 hectares of the total land area of the municipality.
- It is followed by a low and high sedimentary foot hills and ridges that is characterized by an elevation of lowland and upland/hilly land. It is located in Banlag, Baylo, San Jose, Olaycon, Awao, Haguimitan, Pasian, Rizal, Upper Ulip, Salvacion, Macopa, Inambatan, Casoon and San Isidro. It covers 21.93% having 15,196 hectares of the total land area. Its soil depth is 50-100 cm. moderately deep. Refer to Table 2.
- As to slope classification, 0-8% which is classified as level to undulating has an area of 26,327 hectares or 38% of the total land area. Areas which are more than 50% in slope or classified as very steep, contains an area of 9,566 or 13.8% of the total land area. Refer to Figure 3.
Basic Soil Type in the Municipality of Monkayo
|% to total|
|Broad alluvial plain||Mamunga, Babag, Macopa, Naboc, Tubo-Tubo||5,430||7.84|
|Lower river terraces||Olaycon, Babag, Mamunga, Inambatan, Poblacion, Banlag, San Jose, Baylo, Haguimitan, Rizal, Pasian||5,942||8.58|
|Collu-Alluvial Fans||Poblacion, Salvacion, Union, Upper Ulip, Tubo-Tubo, Naboc, Baylo, Awao||5,380||7.76|
|Low & High
Sedimentary foot hills and ranges
|Banlag, Baylo, San Jose, Olaycon, Awao, Haguimitan, Pasian, Rizal, Upper Ulip, Salvacion, Macopa, Inambatan, Casoon, San Isidro||15,196||7.76|
|High Limestone Hills||Casoon, San Isidro||353||0.51|
|High Volcanic Complex Hills||Pasian, Rizal, Baylo||5,865||8.47|
|Limestone Mountains||Mt. Diwata||885||1.28|
|High Meta-Sedimentary Mountains||Upper Ulip, Salvacion, Baylo, Tubo-Tubo, Naboc||2,283||3.29|
|Complex Volcanic Mountains||Mt. Diwata, Tubo-Tubo, Naboc, Upper Ulip, Salvacion, Baylon, Rizal, Pasian||22,686||32.74|
|Built-up areas||all Barangays||5,269||7.6|
Source: Bureau of Soils and Water Management
- The municipality is traversed by Agusan and Manat Rivers cutting across Compostela Valley going to Agusan del Sur. The Naboc river supplies water for irrigation to rice paddies in barangays Naboc, Babag and Tubo-Tubo.
- There are also some creeks existing within the municipality which serve as tributaries that can add the raging flow and current of these major rivers. On the other hand, the municipality is endowed with potable spring water like in Pasian, Maite, Casoon, Tubo-Tubo, Banlag, Awao, Mt. Diwata, Upper Ulip, Union, Baylo, Rizal, Babag, San Jose and Salvacion.
- As to hydrologeological condition, the barangays of Babag, Mamunga, Inambatan, Tubo-Tubo, Union, Upper Ulip, Salvacion, Poblacion, Baylo, Haguimitan, Rizal, Pasian, Macopa and Awao have less productive aquifer, while barangays Naboc, San Jose, Banlag, San Isidro and Casoon have fairly extensive and less productive aquifer, from moderate to high permeability; and Mt. Diwata with less to moderate permeability. Refer to Figure 4.
E. Climate and Rainfall
Monkayo’s climatic type falls under Type IV. This condition is characterized by rainfall evenly distributed throughout the year. The average rainfall is 3,456 mm. However, it is observed that November, December and January are usually the wettest, while May and June are the driest. During the same period, average temperature ranged between 26.00C to 30.00C, although this has been increased for the past years.
F. Land Suitability
- Areas suitable for cultivation both agricultural and reforestation is about 18,204.00 hectares. These areas are Agricultural-Alienable and Disposable land and classified forest land (For Agro- & Production Forest). This is about 60% of the total land area of the municipality. Unclassified forest land or timberland also suited for reforestation has an approximate area of 26,183.6292 hectares or 38% of the total land area of Monkayo.
- There are approximately 14,880 hectares of lands are limited pasture. These can be seen in barangays Inambatan, Awao, Mamunga, Macopa, Babag, Haguimitan. This means that 50 hectares of land per barangay be identified for pasture.
- Approximately about 31,584.067 hectares or 45.58% of municipality’s land area are reserved for forest. These areas are classified according to its purpose such as reforestation, production forest and agro-forest, reforestation of Mt. Diwata as mineral land is included in this aspect. As part of the plan, the municipal government is going to reforest the barangays of Banlag, Olaycon, San Jose, Jaguimitan, Rizal, Pasian, Inambatan, San Isidro, Casoon, Awao, Baylo, Naboc, Upper Ulip, Tubo-Tubo, Salvacion and Union, through rubber production program, commercial fruit tree plantation and rattan production.
- On the other hand, production forest covers approximately 7,770.150 hectares or 11.21% of the total land area of the municipality while agro-forest covers around 12,361.90 hectares. Likewise, unclassified forest land is approximately 26,183.6292 hectares. Alienable and Disposable agricultural land has an area of 22,235.6582 hectares. Unclassified forest land or Timberland also suited for reforestation has an approximate area of 26,183.6292 hectares of 38% of the total land area of Monkayo.
- Land suitable for urban uses are those within 0-15% slope. These areas can be found in the following barangays: Poblacion, Banlag, Baylo, Rizal, Pasian, Olaycon, Macopa, Babag, Naboc, Mamunga, Union, Inambatan, Haguimitan, Salvacion, Upper Ulip, Tubo-Tubo and Awao.
- Soils suitable for rice crops aside from those irrigated rice lands are found in barangays Salvacion, Union, Poblacion, Naboc, Tubo-Tubo, Babag, Mamunga, Baylo, Rizal, Awao, Pasian, Inambatan, Upper Ulip, San Jose, Macopa and Haguimitan. These barangays have low elevation and ranges of soil ph is readily available for this crop. Irrigation systems are existing in Barangays Naboc, Tubo-Tubo, Salvacion, Baylo and Rizal.
- For diversified crops, soils suitable for this purpose are found in barangays Salvacion, Upper Ulip, Union, Tubo-Tubo, Babag, Mamunga, Macopa, Naboc, Inambatan, Baylo, Haguimitan, Awao, Pasian and San Jose. Elevation of these areas are usually lowland and a little hilly. Or less than 100 meters above sea level.
- Soils suitable for tree crops are found in barangays Awao, Casoon, San Isidro, San Jose, Olaycon, Upper Ulip, Pasian, Tubo-Tubo, Mamunga and Banlag. These portions or some areas of barangays are upland, hilly and rolling. Commercial Trees are suitable for Mt. Diwata or in areas which have high in elevation; elevation ranging from 100 to greater than 100 meters above sea level.
G. Ancestral Domain
- Of the total land area of Monkayo, 39.07 per cent or 27,070.49 hectares were awarded to the unified Mandaya, Manobo, Mangguangan and Dibabawon tribes covering fourteen barangays, namely Awao, Banlag, Baylo, Casoon, Haguimitan, Mt. Diwata, Naboc, Pasian, Rizal, Salvacion, San Isidro, San Jose, Tubo-tubo, and Upper Ulip. Refer to Table 3.
- It was apportioned into two parcels as shown in Figure 5. The ancestral domain areas of Monkayo also shares common boundaries with four (4) other ancestral domains, aside from the Dibabawon and Mangguangan CADT. Being a melting pot of the four tribes, Monkayo indigenous peoples are uniquely situated in that they already have established relationships with these neighboring CADT holders:
- CADT No. R11-BOS-0403-0006: The ancestral domain boundary on the East extends up to the administrative jurisdiction of the Municipality of Boston, Davao Oriental. However, this overlap in administrative jurisdiction does not indicate conflict with the Boston Mandaya Tribe whom CADT No. R11-BOS-0403-0006 was approved on April 3, 2003, as they have their respective management plans.
- CADT No. R11-NEW-0204-019: The common ancestral domain boundary with the Mandaya Tribe of Compostela, Compostela Valley also does not indicate conflict with CADT No. R11-NEW-0204-019 approved on February 17, 2004.
- CADT No. R11-LAA-1005-35: The common ancestral domain boundary with the Dibabawon Tribe of Laak, Compostela Valley and the in the municipalities of Asuncion, Kapalong and San Isidro, does not indicate any conflict with CADT No. R11-LAA-1005-35 approved October 22, 2005.
- CADT No. R13-VER-1108-089: It was approved on November 7, 2008 and issued to the Manobo Tribe of Santa Josefa, Agusan del Sur covers portions of Barangay Awao, Monkayo.
Barangays within the Ancestral Domain
|Barangay||Ancestral Domain Area
H. Flora and Fauna
- There are still a few species of indigenous plants and wildlife that can still be found within the ancestral domain, except in populated and farmland areas. However, only a few reptiles, mammals, birds and tree species have remained and were observed by local residents. Originally, there were about a hundred species of trees found in the dipterocarp forest in Mt. Diwata mountain ranges. Based on the latest inventory conducted by DENR with the assistance of Datu Mauricio Latiban, only forty-nine (49) known species and three (3) lesser known species of trees were found. However, abaca and other fiberous plants, rattan and native palms are now endangered. These can only be found in some forested areas within the domain.
- Wild animals, particularly land mammals, are trapped in isolated patches of forests in the western section of the ancestral domain. On the eastern corridor section however, land mammals can travel all throughout the mountain range from Mt. Pasian to the Tagub–Kampalili Mountain in Maragusan. Reptiles such as different species of snakes and lizard family are still observable but in reduced number of sightings. Important species of birds include writhed hornbill and blue napped parrot which conservation status is endangered. An unconfirmed report from some indigenous peoples disclose the presence of an unidentified eagle sighted in Bermuda, at the southern boundary of the ancestral domain.
I. Freshwater Resources
- There are existing surface water resources by type and classifications as reflected in Table 4. It shows that such surface water resources can be a great source for Class AA and A public water supply class I and II, particularly in Pasian, Awao and Salvacion. For agriculture, industrial water supply class I and inland water, surface water resource at Macopa can be of beneficial use.
- Agusan River traversing Barangays Babag, Naboc, Mamunga, Poblacion, Baylo, Jaguimitan, San Jose, Rizal and Pasian can be used as Class B, C, and D. While Naboc River traversing Tubo-Tubo, Naboc, Babag, Mamunga connecting Agusan river can also be beneficial for Class B, C and D.
Existing Surface Water Resources by Type and Classification, Year 2014
|1. Magdagandang Falls||Pasian||Class AA, A|
|2. Odiongan Creek||Pasian||Class AA, A|
|3. Awao Falls||Awao||Class AA, A|
|4. Sagay Falls||Salvacion||Class AA, A|
|5. Paypayanon Falls||Salvacion||Class AA, A|
|6. MahayahayFalls||Baylo||Class AA, A|
|7. Binaton Falls||Rizal||–|
|8 .Tinago Spring||Tinago, Tubo-Tubo||Class D|
|9. Naboc River||Mt.Diwata, Tubo-Tubo, Naboc, Babag, Mamonga||Class B,C and D|
|10. Agusan River||Poblacion, San Jose, BayloJaguimitan and Pasian||Class B,C and D|
|11. Awao River||Awao||–|
|12. Manlangon River||Awao||–|
|13. Saug River||Casoon||–|
|14. Pasian River||Pasian||–|
|15. Bahayan River||Rizal||–|
|16. Buay River||Baylo||–|
|17. Ulip River||Upper Ulip||–|
|18. Camagangwan Creek||Sugod, Union||–|
J. Diwalwal Mineral Reservation Area (DMRA)
- On November 25, 2002 President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo approved Proclamation No. 297, which excluded a certain area from the operations of Proclamation No. 369 series of 1931, and declared 8,100 hectares as mineral reservation and as environmentally-critical area of which 5,839,71 hectares belong to the municipality. Some productive areas in Mt. Diwata are Tinago, Upper Buenas, Busay, Upper Balite, Lower Balite and Paraiso gold vein systems.
- As finalized in the June 23, 2006 Supreme Court Ruling, the State has full control over the mining operations in the Diwalwal Mineral Reservation Area and can pursue full control and supervision of the exploration, development and utilization of the country’s natural mineral resources with two options: (i) through direct undertaking or by entering into co – production, joint venture, or production – sharing agreements; or (ii) by entering into agreement with foreign – owned corporations for large – scale exploration, development and utilization. See Figure 6.
- There are two government-owned and controlled corporations tasked with managing the DMRA, (i) the Natural Resources Development Corporation (NRDC), and (ii) Philippine Mining Development Corporation (PMDC).
Population and Demographic Profile
A. Population Count and Trend
- Monkayo is composed of one urban barangay and 20 rural barangays. Among the cities and municipalities in the Davao region, Monkayo ranked 9th in terms of population size with 94,908 persons and ranked 1st in the Province of Compostela Valley based on the 2015 census with a population density of 160 inhabitants per square kilometer.
- Of the 21 barangays in Monkayo, the largest in terms of population size is Poblacion with 17,435 persons that is accounted 19.04% of the municipal’s total population based on RCBMS (2016). It is followed by Mt. Diwata with 10,201 persons and Casoon with 6,283 persons. San Isidro is the least populous barangay with 1,417 persons. It is followed by Mamunga (1,662) and Inambatan (1,745).
- The population of the municipality is projected to increase by 1.47% in 2020 with a projected population of 122,453 persons and 1.37% in 2025 with a projected population of 131,069 persons as revealed in the regression equation y = 9915.8ln(x) + 66872. Refer to Figure 7.
- In terms of the distribution by sex, sex ratio is higher than 100 indicating that there is a predominance of male population in the municipality, with males comprising 52.55% or 48,124 men. Refer to Table 5.
Sex-Disaggregated Population per Barangay
|Barangay||Male||Female||Total||% to Total|
Source: RCBMS, 2016
- As it can be gleaned in Figure 8, Brgy. Poblacion has 4,050 households or 18.89% recorded followed by Brgy. Mt. Diwata with 2,498 households or 11.65%. The barangays of San Isidro, Mamunga and Inambatan have the least number of households with 341, 410 and 432, respectively with 4.4 average household size.
- The projected total number of households in 2020 and 2025 are 27,556 households and 29,459 households, respectively.
B. Age-Sex Structure
Moreover, it can be observed that Monkayo has a very young population comprising to 10,239 children or 11.22% followed by persons aged 10-14 and 15-19 years old comprising to 10.73% and 10.36% of the population, respectively. Surprisingly, there are 3,820 persons who are 65 years old and above that is Refer to Figure 9.
C. Labor Force
Of the total population, 70.83% or around 67,220 persons (RCBMS, 2016) are of working age.
Unemployed labor force was estimated at 156 persons or about 0.28% of the economically-active population. Overall, this puts Monkayo in a favorable situation of reaping the demographic dividend (where economically active members of the population far outnumber the young and the aged). Refer to Figure 10.
Moreover, the total dependency ratio or a measure showing the number of dependents, aged zero to 14 and over the age of 65, to the total population, aged 15 to 64 is 58.97%. This gives an insight into the amount of people of nonworking age compared to the number of those of working age. The child dependency ratio is 52.32% while aged dependency ratio is 6.65%.
D. Persons with Disability
Figure 11 presented the different kinds and varying degrees of disabilities and accounted the total number of persons with disability in the municipality with 832 persons or 0.91% of the population. Persons who suffered from illness specifically mild stroke accounted the highest number with 248 persons. These persons experienced from inability to move one side of their body, numbness on one side of the body or difficulty speaking.
E. Population Density<?h3>
Based on PSA standards, Monkayo has two barangays categorized as urban. These are the barangays of Poblacion and Mt. Diwata. There are 136 residents per hectare making it the most densely populated municipality in the Province of Compostela Valley, using the land area of 69,289 hectares as base. Mt. Diwata registered with the highest population density of 2,177 residents followed by Poblacion with 389 persons. The least populated barangays are Inambatan and Mamunga with 52 and 59 residents per hectare, respectively.
F. Religious Affiliation
In the RCBMS (2016) result, of the total population Roman Catholic has the biggest number of members with 70.43%, followed by Iglesia Ni Cristo with 3.28%, Seventh Day Adventist with 1.97%, Islam with 1.71%, Aglipay with 1.06% and other percentages is spread out to other religious affiliations.
Many of the indigenous peoples still had religious beliefs clinging to the old spiritual practices. Believers of this sort, however, were drastically reduced during the American colonial times when non-Catholic Christian faith were introduced in the Philippines, notably Protestants and Baptist affiliations and the proliferation of Filipino-based religious sects. Today, indigenous peoples in Monkayo are members of various religious denominations dominated by the Roman Catholicism (39%), with Protestants a close 35%. The survey also includes non-differentiated sects that consist of 19%.
G. Ethnicity and Languages/Dialects
Monkayo is known as the melting pot of the tribes, hence the ancestral domain has been recognized as belonging to the unified Mandaya, Manobo, Mangguangan and Dibabawon indigenous communities. Throughout the centuries inter-marriages among the tribes have blurred the ethnicity for some, but have also reinforced the bonds between the four tribes. Government policies with respect to land acquisition and other developments have led to migration from indigenous peoples from other territories, as well as non-IPs. This migration was further exacerbated by the 1980s gold rush in Diwalwal.
In Table 6, it can be gleaned that 83.51% of the population in the municipality distinguished themselves with tribal ancestry.
The ethnicity of the indigenous peoples who are occupying the ancestral domain is composed mainly of the Dibabawons who make up 44% of the indigenous peoples’ population, and followed closely by the Mandayas with 40%. The Manobos and the Manguangans both have an equal 8% share of the population.
The five most spoken dialects in the municipality are Cebuano with 32,200 persons utilized the dialect in daily informal conversations comprising to 33.95% of the total population, followed by Boholano with 14,315 persons or 15.10%, Mandaya with 13,488 persons or 14.22%, Binisaya/Bisaya with 9,855 persons or 10.392% and Hiligaynon/Ilonggo with 5,397 or 5.59%.
Source: RCBMS, 2016
H. Poverty Incidence
Poverty in the municipality remains a challenge for LGU of Monkayo. The growing prevalence of poverty needs efficient solutions and this can be done by managing the local cities and municipalities to easily identify the factors that affect poverty. Despite the many efforts of both national and local governments and even by some of the non-government organizations in their poverty alleviation programs, the poverty incidences at the municipality and barangay level in Monkayo remains alarming.
Using the self-rated approach to measure poverty in RCBMS, there are 12,771 households of 59% lived below the poverty line. Furthermore, Awao and Casoon had the highest poverty incidence at the barangay level with 70% of their total households, it is followed by San Isidro and Rizal with 69% and 66%, respectively. However, Poblacion registered the lowest poverty incidence with 46% or 4,039 households. Refer to Table 7.
Proportion of Households with Income Below the Poverty Threshold
(Php 22,858/capita/year income)
(no. of HHs)
|Total HHs income in the Barangay||Individual HH income|
Source: RCBMS, 2016
Geological and Meteorological Hazards
The multi-sectoral consultations have identified flooding (refer to Figure 12), rain-induced landslides, typhoon (extreme weather condition), drought and earthquake (refer to Figure 13) as the major hazards that the municipality is at risk for if it is mitigated and counter-measures were not adopted.
By adding the projections to the observed values, the mean temperature in 2020 and 2050 will be 27.60C and 28.60C for the months of December, January and February, respectively. The forecasted highest mean temperature in Monkayo will be in the months of March, April and May in the year 2050 with 30.10C.
The municipality will experience less rainfall during 2036-2065 (centered at 2050). The highest estimated seasonal rainfall will be in the year 2020 specifically in the months of December, January, February with a 10.2% or 84.53 mm increase from the 748.1 mm observed value. It can be noted that the lowest rainfall will occur in March, April and May 2050 with 584.27 mm and followed by June, July, August 2050 with 699.47 mm.
There are 2,981 days with temperature greater than 350C in Monkayo during the 2006-2035 period and 5,373 days during the 2036-2065 period. Also, there are 4,789 dry days in the municipality during the 2006-2035 (centered at 2050) and 4 days with rainfall above 150 mm of the same period.
The municipality pride itself as a center of education in Compostela Valley. Monkayo offers quality education from preschool to baccalaureate courses. In 2009, its educational institutions, including day care centers which provide preschool training, totaled 113. Of these, 110 are public schools and 3 operated privately. Refer to Figure 14.
According to the NSO (2010) survey, the municipality has a literacy rate of 96% comprising to 80,059 persons. Refer to Table 8.
For the Early Childhood Care and Development Program (ECCDP), there were 3,365 pre-schoolers provided with day care services in 17 Day Care Centers in the municipality.
Elementary education is being provided by 37 public and 2 private schools. For school-year 2016-2017, public elementary schools admitted 14,123 enrollees while private schools had 444 enrollees for a total of 14,123 pupils as can be gleaned in Table 9. Against the projected elementary school age (6-12 years old) population of 14,233 children, this translates to a 99.23% participation rate. Meanwhile, in the last RCBMS (2016) survey, there are 13,793 pupils attended elementary school while 323 children who are not attending elementary school. Refer to Figure 15.
Secondary education is provided by 12 public and one private schools. Last school year, public secondary schools accommodated 7,229 enrollees while private schools welcomed 689 for a total of 7,916 students. Against the 2017 projected high school age (13-16) population of 13,923 persons, this translates to an even higher 56.85% participation rate. Meanwhile, in the last RCBMS (2016) survey, there are 6,855 students attended high school while 850 persons who are not attending secondary education. Refer to Figure 16.
In April 2017, the Bukidnon State University – External Studies Center hold its final commencement exercises with 270 graduates, following the closure order, per CHEd en banc Resolution No. 507-201, also cited the BSU-ECs’ violation of CHEd Memorandum No. 2007-209 that prohibits the establishment of extension centers outside the regional jurisdiction of the main higher education institution (HEI).
The Monkayo College of Arts, Sciences and Technology (MonCAST) is an LGU-operated community college that offers courses on education, business administration and agriculture. There were 1,103 students enrolled in the college with 66.73% females. These data however includes enrolment of non-Monkayo residents, which can mask access issues, especially at the tertiary level.
In the CSIS (2016) survey, the citizens rated high in the overall satisfaction rating with 86.6% while citizens rated 76% as it calls for reforms to improve the education delivery in the municipality.
Student–Teacher and Student-Classroom Ratio in Elementary Level, SY 2016-2017
B. Health and Sanitation
- Monkayo has 23 Barangay Health Stations (BHS) and 24 Rural Health Midwives with two BHS in Brgy. Poblacion and Brgy. Mt. Diwata with three (3) Rural Health Midwives assigned due to the bulk of its population.
- There is one (1) private family medicine clinic, one (1) dental clinic, one (1) private paanakan and one public infirmary with 3-bed capacity.
- The Municipal Health Center is operated with one (1) doctor, five (5) nurses, one (1) dentist and three (3) medical technologists.
- In 2016, the crude birth rate is 134 per 1,000 population in 2016.
- The crude death rate is three (3) per 1,000 population.
- The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is 3.12 per 1,000 population, Young Child Mortality Rate (YCMR) is 5.12 per 1,000 population and Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) is 2.08 per 1,000 population.
- In 2016, the leading causes of morbidity in the municipality is upper respiratory tract infection followed by malnutrition, urinary tract infection and hypertension. Refer to Table 11.
- There are 517 registered malnourished children aged 0-71 months old in 2016, a slightly decrease of 60 registered malnourished children from 2015. Refer to Figure 17.
- There is an increasing number of registered severely wasted, wasted, above normal, overweight, obese and total malnourished children in 2016 as compared in 2015. Refer to Figure 18.
- There are 19,417 households who have access in sanitary toilets while 8% or 2,112 households do not have access in sanitary toilets. Refer to Figure 19.
- Generally, most households in the municipality have access to safe drinking water comprising to 20,120 households. However, still lags 1,033 households for potable water. Refer to Figures 20 and Figure 21.
- Based on the CSIS Report (2016), the LGU of Monkayo is doing very well in making its people aware of its health services. Among the six specific health services, the respondents are most aware of the vaccination for infants/children (97.33%) followed by pre-and post-natal/child birth services (96%). On the other hand, respondents are least aware of the presence and/or availability of programs on prevention and management of communicable and non-communicable diseases (74%).
- On the availment of health services, Free Basic Medicine or Low Cost Medicine Program (78.99%) followed by Vaccination for Infants and Children (65.07%) and Family Planning/Reproductive Health (61.27%) has the highest availment. On the other hand, availment is lowest on Prevention and Management of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases at 27.93% of the total aware respondents indicating that the available health services are not being maximized by the citizens.
- Moreover, those who availed the health services reported they are satisfied with all the services. Highest percentage is posted on vaccination for infants/children at 98.95%, followed by pre-natal/post-natal/child birth services 98.67% and basic dental/oral hygiene at 98.59%. These means that the citizen’s contentment in their contract with the local government’s health services.
Leading Causes of Morbidity for the Past Three Years
- The housing situation for the last three censal years indicates that from 2010 to 2014, there is an increase of 0.85% on the number of households; 0.84% on household population and 7% on the number of housing units occupied.
- There are 19,236 households living in a single house where a single family dwells on a property designed to be occupied by only one family while 1,142 households reside in a duplex type of housing. Refer to Table 12.
- There are 1,356 households or 6.75% of the total households who are informal settlers living either own house, rent-free lot without consent of owner, rent-free house and lot without consent of owner and living in a public space without rent. Refer to Figure 22.
- In the inventory of residential subdivisions in 2016, there are 895 housing units of which 210 single-detached units in Golden Plains Subdivision, 545 single-detached units in Monkayo Resettlement – HABITAT, 50 single-detached units in BLISS Project, 40 single-detached units in Bansilaw Gawad Kalinga, and 50 duplex units in Gawad Kalinga – Berjaya.
- There are 2,225 units on on-site housing project implemented by DSWD and 7,132 units off-site housing project implemented by NHA.
- As of 2016, there are 10,700 housing units available for the 10,478 households in the municipality. For the location of these resettlement areas, refer to Figure 23.
D. Protective Measures
PNP Monkayo Station headquartered at Brgy. Poblacion to handle the daily peace and order situation of the municipality with 53 personnel with 1:1,790 uniformed personnel to population ratio equipped with two (2) service vehicles and one (1) motorcycle. It has a serviceable sub-station located at Mt. Diwata and has 3 non-uniformed personnel. It is further enhanced by the presence of four (4) aides hired by the local government through its Logistical Support to National Agencies Program. Refer to Figure 24.
The Armed Forces of the Philippines has 448 personnel deployed in the municipality and 302 trained volunteers from different barangays that help maintain peace and order situation.
There are 13 AFP Detachments established in the strategic locations of the municipality. These government troops are active in maintaining peace and development efforts and conducting of communication, education and public awareness such as the Community Support Program to selected barangays.
Fire protection services in Monkayo is provided mainly by the local branch of the Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) equipped with two (2) fire trucks and 12 personnel responsible for implementing national policies related to firefighting and fire prevention as well as implementation of the new Fire Code of the Philippines (RA 9514) in the municipality.
For the improvement of urban center traffic and transportation management solution, the local government employed eight (8) personnel mitigating the impact of vehicular traffic on major streets and promotion of safe and pleasant conditions for motorists, bicyclists, pedestrians and residents on municipal streets.
In times of emergencies, the municipality is equipped with 46 volunteers under the Monkayo Search and Rescue Team (MoSaRT) provided with complete rescue tools and equipment and early warning devices.
For 2014-2016, the PNP-Monkayo arrested 256 persons violating the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 (RA 9165), Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act (RA 10591) and illegal gambling. The offenders are imprisoned to the Municipal Detention Cell/Custodial Facility, a holding facility, then later released or transferred to the Provincial District Jail in Montevista or at the Provincial Rehabilitation Center in Tagum City.
E. Sports and Recreation
- The local government acknowledges the contribution of sport, physical activity and recreation to health policy, adult social care, education, youth crime reduction and community engagement.
- Recreation and sports facilities of the municipality comprise of one municipal gymnasium with a total floor area of 1,581 square meters, 16 mini-gyms/covered courts, 21 basketball courts, 1 shooting range (25th IB), 3 billiard halls, 4 inland resorts, 5 school athletic fields/oval, municipal park and plaza. Refer to Figure 25.
Monkayo is a first-class municipality with an annual income of P68,141,00.66 in 2016 including the collected tax revenues (i.e. community tax, real property tax, special education tax, business tax, and fine and penalties), and local business and service income. The share of the municipality from the internal revenue collections are P177,785,976.00, P203,048,146.00 and P223,895,243.00 in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively. Refer to Figure 26.
It has a primarily agriculture, mining and service-driven economy. The service sector is further broken down into wholesale and retail trade, consumer services, financial services, and social services.
In terms of land use, Monkayo remains primarily an agricultural municipality. Of the municipality’s total land area of 69,289 hectares, 28.06 per cent or 19,444.30 hectares are utilized for various agricultural undertakings. As can be gleaned in Table 13, Monkayo’s major crops are coconut, rubber, banana, corn, rice, rubber, cacao and oil palm.
Coconut ranks number one in terms of the agricultural land area planted to a crop with 11.5% of the total land area. Corn and rice rank second and third, respectively. Legumes have the least percentage of occupied land area with 0.04%.
The lowland rice production area increases in 2014 as rehabilitation of irrigation and drainage infrastructure were partially in placed. Additionally, rubber, cacao and coconut has significantly increased upon the implementation various rehabilitation programs which is a combination of food security intervention and community-based livelihood activities.
Cavendish banana production shown a slowest growth since the devastation of typhoon Pablo and Fusarium wilt epidemic where these devastated farmlands were developed for other crops (i.e. corn, rubber, cacao and coconut) as banana growers are now hesitant to re-invest in the area due to concerns over another natural calamity and high investment cost. This important export product is now gaining traction as new investors started developing and expanding new areas for this crop.
Inland fishery accounts for 22.50 hectares of fishponds with 630 fisherfolks/operators growing tilapia, African hito, panggasius and carp averaging to 2,941.2 kgs/ha/year.
In support to agricultural activities in the municipality, the local government has established Municipal Hatchery, Municipal Livestock Upgrading Center, Municipal Nursery, Farmers Information and Technology Center, Goat and Chicken Multiplier Farm, Corn Seed Production. Also, there machinery and equipment owned privately and publicly. These include nine rice mills, five corn mills, 84 multi-purpose drying pavement, five Barangay Food Terminals, six flat-bed dryers, 35 warehouses, 30 rice threshers, five corn shellers, 26 mechanical dryers, four farm tractors, one cassava chipper, two cassava granulators and on-going construction of Municipal Trading Post.
There are 4,818 registered rice and corn farmers in the municipality, 2,605 farmworkers, 1,978 piggery and poultry growers.
According to the data provided by the Municipal Agriculturist, there are 4,949 heads of swine, 5 heads of cattle, and 14 heads of goat slaughtered for commercial and household consumption in 2015.
There are 7,521.2465 hectares covered by CARP with 4,778 farmer-beneficiaries within 20 barangays.
In 2015, agriculture generated an estimated 492.29 million pesos from food and feed crops, industrial and high value commercial crops, livestock, poultry and inland fishery.
The municipality will experience shortage on cereal products and meat against the local production in the next five years as there is a dramatic decrease of 15% on prime commodity production area due to crop change/shift and annual increase in population. Refer to Tables 14 and 15 for the annual food consumption and requirement in the municipality.
Agriculture and Food Production in the Municipality
Current and Projected Food Requirement for 2017-2022
- Mining and mineral processing are the major economic activities in the declared mineral reservation area.
- Also, ore extraction, ore processing, refining of gold metal with the use of blowtorch and gold trading are also key economic activities found in Mt. Diwata.
- A conservative estimate of those employed in the area is at 15,000 persons.
- There were 838 registered business establishments in 2011, including selling of consumer goods, service shops, food stores/restaurants. Other recreational businesses and transport service.
- There are 32 gold processing plants established and 81 ballmills and motormills operated in Mt. Diwata, Pasian, Olaycon and Upper-ulip.
- The mineral reservation is host to the Diwalwal gold vein systems which are surrounded by copper and gold resources lke Upper-ulip Copper-Gold Prospects from the northwest, Mibatas/Higanteng-bato Copper-Gold Prospects from the southwest, the Pag-asa/Paraiso Gold Prospects to the north, Simulao Gold Prospects from the east, and LetterV/Bermuda Gold Prospects from the south of the area. Refer to Figure 27.
- On the average, the area yields 30 to 40 grams of gold per ton of ore. A medium to large-scale normal mining operation would generate around 54 tons per day which would yield around 1.62 to 2.16 kilograms of gold per day.
- As of first quarter of 2012, the average world price of gold is $1,689.951/oz. The average yield per operator can be translated to $96,570.16 to $128,760.16 gross income on a good day. This income is subject to the 15% government share and other mining operation expenses, royalties, taxes and fees for mining activities.
- In 2005, there were seven (7) Applications for Production Sharing Agreements (APSAs) and four (4) Exploration Permit Applications (EXPAs) within the Monkayo ancestral domain. As of 2015, no APSA or EXPA has been approved yet and there are additional EXPAs lodged with the MGB, which are in areas outside of Diwalwal. Refer to Table 16.
Existing Mineral Applications in Monkayo
C. Commerce and Trade
As of the last quarter of 2015 there are 2,907 registered business establishments which are engaged in wholesale, retail, banking and finance, services, real estate, rice and corn mill, agricultural enterprise (banana plantation, livestock and poultry production), manufacturing/processing, woodcraft and buy and sell that posted an average capital investment amounted to more or less P 240,000.00. Seventy percent (70%) of these establishments are located within Poblacion. Refer to Table 17.
There are 42,421 sq.m. of commercial business district and three banking institutions (i.e. ONB a Rural Bank of BDO, Davao de Oro Cooperative and Landbank of the Philippines).
Biggest number of proprietor are engaged in wholesaling, retailing, buy and sell and also agri-business, financing and mining industry.
Comparative Number of Registered Establishment and Employment
DMRA is considered as a prime tourist spot in Compostela Valley province. It has been identified as part of the attractions under province’s Bulawan Fetsival. Key potential tourism sites identified are the Mt. Diwata Ranges, Buenas Creek Inland Resort, Paraiso Falls and the tunnels in the area. However, infrastructure and tourism support facilities have yet to be established. The roads leading to the mineral reservation area needs to be improved as it is only accessible through the use of 4×4 vehicles or high-powered motorcycles.
Mine-Tunnel Trailing Guided Tour, Mt. Diwata – this mine-tunnel guided tour is existing but not as popular to tourists. This tourist destination is visited only for study and significant documentation.
Awao Waterfalls is an ideal getaway for those who love nature and adventure, getting to the falls’ gates is a journey loaded with tons of thrills itself. The place is accessible in Monkayo via San Jose can also be reached using Sta. Josefa town, in Agusan del Sur as entry point.
PJRB Inland Resort is boasting its reputation as one the most splendid resorts in the province. Recognized by the Municipal Tourism Council as local tourist destination, its warm and friendly atmosphere makes it a perfect destination for travelers who seek comfort and relaxation.
Tinago Inland Resort is found in Barangay Tubo-tubo, it is one of local tourist destinations in Monkayo, bonding moments of families usually happen in this inland resort which accessible by a 2-wheel or 4-wheel vehicles.
Combilan Cave at Casoon has been popular in the year 1998, its uniqueness is the presence of numerous formations of calcites. The prominent are the popularly known stalagmites and stalactites. The cave is multi-chambered and home to thousands of fruit bats. Combilan cave is considered to be one of the fruit bat sanctuaries in the Philippines. This tourist destination is for rehabilitation.
The tourists can also observe and buy jewelries hand-crafted by PWDs and local artisans which is their means of livelihood.
Promoting agro-tourism in the region is the Agro-Eco Tourism Center in Pasian that is operated and managed by the Compostela Valley Provincial Government.
The Tourism Industry in the municipality has not yet taken off. Necessary steps like Feasibility Studies preparation, skills training and manpower development program and even tapping technical consultants, and the private sector initiative have to be considered as vital ingredients to make the industry moving and be realized in a certain period.
The establishment of Bulawan Junction as a gateway to the province of Compostela Valley is a way of attracting tourist in the neighboring municipalities and regions. This facility will showcase the local craftsmanship in processing and making jewelries as the main product of the municipality.
Potential Tourist Destinations include: Sagay Waterfalls and Hot Spring in Salvacion, parks and plaza in Poblacion, Monkayo Botanical Garden in Maite Communal Forest, Paypayanon Falls and Mahayahay Falls in Baylo, Hot Spring in Upper Ulip, and Dumanog Falls and Magdagandang Falls in Pasian.
A. Waste Management
The MENRO conducted waste analysis characterization study. This Municipality has a total waste generation of 24,529.75 kilos per day as to population of 101,832 year 2012.The waste generation based on segregation at source biodegradable, recyclable, residual & hazardous waste.
Biodegradable wastes generated a total of 10,793.09 kilos per day or 44% from total waste generation. The 1,042.80 kilos per day or 9% waste generated disposed at Municipal Eco-park. The LGU composting practices as follows:
- Backyard composting at households were required by the Barangays in accordance to barangay ordinance as mandated by DILG. Gulayan sa Paaralan at Schools under DepEd Memorandum Order No.191-2013 & No. 5-2014. Vermiculture/Composting at Barangay being assisted by save the children and Barangay Cooperative and Windrow composting at Municipal eco-park, bio-waste from market & business establishments at prime streets. The products or humus use for gardening, parks, playground and landscaping at Concrete Island, Prime Streets, Poblacion, Monkayo, ComVal Province.
- Recyclable wastes generated a total of 5,290.10 per day or 20% from total waste generation the Local Government Unit is granting a seed capital for Material Recovery Facility operation to the barangays and registered junkshops were signed being a partner of the implementation.
- Residual wastes generated a total of 8,879.32 kilos per day or 27% from total waste generation these wastes being collected by the LGU per schedule and disposed at Municipal eco-park for alternative technology under the Memorandum of Agreement from Local Government Unit and Redwood Logistics and assisted by DSWD.
- Liquid Waste – no liquid waste since the owners of gasoline stations, funeral waste and other industries were responsible to their waste as required under ECC.
- Toxic Waste or hazardous wastes generated a total of 2,532.49 kilos per day or 9% from total waste generation. The 25.32 or 1% from domestic waste were collected & disposed in concrete vault at Municipal Eco-park and the remaining 2,507.17 or 8% waste generated from different stakeholders Clinical waste and funeral parlor or (hazardous wastes under RA 6969) were kept their own septic vault as required by DOH and Gasoline Station has compliant at Environmental Management Bureau
In the CSIS survey, it was found out that a good number of respondents practice waste segregation (82.7%). Seven in ten respondents have their garbage collected (68.7%) by the municipality (66%) mostly once a week (30%).
B. Watershed Management
The presence of forest or forest vegetation plays an important role in maintaining the ecological function of the watershed. Vegetation is important to protect soil surfaces during intense rainfall, and absorbs large proportions of rainfall for underground water recharge and reduction of runoff and flooding. More forest indicate a healthier watershed.
There are 11 identified watersheds in the municipality, covering 19.95% of the total land area.
Naboc-Agusan watershed is the largest watershed in the municipality accounting to 23.96% of the total watershed area. It is very important source since the rice farmers in Tubo-tubo, Naboc and neighboring town Compostela utilized the river basin for irrigation. Refer to Table 18.
Inventory of Watershed area in Monkayo
C. Water Quality
At present, the current environmental situation of the Agusan River is quite challenging. Along the urban center, it is classified as Class C, based on intended Water Use Stream Classification Scheme of the Philippine government but other segment of the river classified as B and D. This qualifies its waters for irrigation of agricultural crops, the propagation and growth of fish and other aquatic resources; boating for recreation; and industrial water supply for manufacturing processes after treatment.
According to their beneficial use, fresh surface waters are classified as Class “AA” (Public Water Supply Class I), “A” (Public Water Supply Class II), “B” (Recreational Water Class I), “C” (Fishery Water, Recreation Water Class II, Industrial Water Supply Class I), “D” (For agriculture, irrigation, livestock watering; Industrial Water Supply II; and other inland water) pursuant to Republic Act 9275 or the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004.
The growth of the mining industry has brought economic and employment opportunities to the residents. However, it has given rise to various socio-economic and environmental problems. The proliferation of mining activities in Mt. Diwata has resulted in threats to environmental security especially in (i) the depletion of trees around Mt. Diwata which are used for mine timber and domestic construction in Diwalwal, (ii) contamination or pollution of freshwater ecosystems that degrade surface water quality and possibly affect underground drinking water of lowland communities, and (iii) degradation of biodiversity. Similar concerns may arise should other areas within the ancestral domain be opened to mining.
Mercury (Hg) in filtered water samples from the Naboc River exceeds the Philippine water quality criteria for both the protection of public health (2 Ag Hg/L as total mercury; DENR Administrative Order No. 34, 1990) and fisheries (5 Ag/L; maximum limit for total Hg; UNEP, 2002). Water from the Naboc River is not abstracted for drinking because it is extremely turbid as a result of discharges from the Diwalwal artisanal mine workings and mineral processing plants. Whereas high Hg loads in solution have been reported previously (Appleton et al., 1999) the general decline in the use of amalgamation for gold extraction suggests that the risk from Hg in solution has declined.
D. Awareness, Availment and Satisfaction of Environmental Programs
Among the four specific environment management programs of the LGU, respondents are most aware of the solid waste management program with an awareness response of 97.33%. This is followed by the clean-up program at 93.33%. On the other hand, respondents are least aware of the community-based greening projects which posted 77.33% only. It was noted that the LGU has no air pollution control program based on the Service Delivery Baseline data.
Availment is highest on the solid waste management services at 80.14%. Availment is lowest on the community-based greening projects at 59.48%. It can be observed that the most and the least availed services are those that have highest and lowest levels of awareness, respectively.
Citizens who benefitted from the programs are satisfied with the services. The highest percentage of satisfaction is noted for solid waste management program (90.60%) followed by the community-based greening projects (84.06%). The program with the least rating is waste water management at 75.61% but still described as high.
On the other hand, the few dissatisfied citizens are saying that the environment projects are not regularly done and not widely disseminated.
A. Roads and Bridges
Monkayo has the total length of road network 537,203 kilometers broken down as follows: 36,610.82 kilometers concrete roads, 28,650 kilometers asphalt roads, 338,511.75 kilometers graveled roads and 89,237 kilometers earth roads. Refer to Table 19.
The total length of the road right of way is 8,991 kilometers and proposed road with 30,989 kilometers.
The total barangay road is 495,963.50 meters of which 26,882.50 meters are concreted, 209,394.00 meters graveled and 87,865.00 meters earth. Refer to Figure 28.
Within the municipality, there are 33 Reinforced Concrete Deck Girder Bridges, four Bailey Bridges, seven Hanging Bridges, one Tram Line Cable and six box culverts.
Inventory of Roads by System Classification and Type of Pavement, Year 2016
B. Land Transport
In 2016, Monkayo’s public transportation system is mainly provided by public and private vehicles, broken down into the following:
- Around 177 units of air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buses that ply inter-regional routes within Davao and Caraga regions, as well as trips between Davao City, Butuan City, Tandag, Surigao City, Tacloban City, Ormoc City and Metro Manila daily; These buses account for 16% of the total;
- 132 units of public utility vans, 97 of which cover inter-provincial routes covering Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte to Davao City and vice versa while the remaining 35 ply intra-regional routes, mainly to Davao and Caraga regions. These vans account for 12% of the total;
- There are 293 units of yellow side cars operating mainly in Poblacion, accounting to 26% of the total;
- There are 45 units of center cars covering to routes – Poblacion to Olaycon and Poblacin to Pasian, accounting to 4% of the total;
- Also, there are 457 units single motors travelling to all points of the municipality that accounts to 41% of the total; and,
- Other mode of transportation include the winged motorcycle or locally known as “skylab” with routes in Casoon, San Jose, San Isidro and Haguimitan. There are 10 unit operating in the municipality that accounted to 1% of the total.
- The entry of the wireless telecommunication companies led by Smart and Globe has accelerated growth of the local telecommunication industry.
- Internet access has also been increasing, powered by more accessible and affordable broadband services being offered by Smart and Globe.
- The broadcast media in Monkayo has continued to grow over the years. These are being provided by AM and FM radio stations stationed in Nabunturan, Tagum City and Davao City, and local television stations, ABS-CBN, GMA, PTV and UNTV and among other.
- Also, the direct-broadcast satellite subscription television service is gaining momentum in the municipality operated by Sky Direct owned by ABS-CBN, Cignal TV owned by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) and TV5, Dream Satellite TV owned by Philippine Multi-media System Inc. (PMSI) and GSat owned by Global Broadcasting and Multi-Media Inc. that offers both prepaid and postpaid packages with exclusive channels.
- The Monkayo Cable is the lone pay television operator in the municipality offering a subscription-based television services.
- National and local dailies and local weekly newspapers are also available in the municipality.
- Postal services are being provided by the Philippine Postal Corporation (PhilPost) whose staff and personnel handle the outgoing and incoming mails and packages, and foreign and domestic printed matters. Complementing it is the presence of courier company LBC Express Inc. (formerly known as Luzon Brokerage Company). Courier is distinguished from ordinary mail services by features such as speed, security, tracking, signature, specialization and individualization of express services, and swift delivery times, which are optional for most everyday mail services.
- However, the advent of short-messaging services offered by mobile telecommunication and internet-based technologies and social networking sites like Yahoo, Gmail, Skype, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram have affected these traditional communication services as it offers an instant messaging that provides online text message and video chat services where the users may transmit both text and video messages and may exchange digital documents such as images, text, and video and it also allows video conference calls.
- The Municipal Government is implementing Level I, II and III water system in different barangays of Monkayo. However, not all households have access to potable drinking water supply located within the 200 meters of dwellings as the standard requirement.
- The waterworks system run by the Local Government Unit of Monkayo – Waterworks Unit supplies the requirements of Brgy. Poblacion and its neighboring barangays. Its main water source came from the two spring in BTC, Union and Sitio Maite, Salvacion. Refer to Figure 29.
- As of 2014, there are 8,310 households served by shallow well after super typhoon Pablo hit the Municipality. There were top five barangays utilizing it, namely: Mt.Diwata, Upper Ulip, Salvacion, Casoon, and Awao.
- On deep well there are 460 households served with two barangays left functional after super Typhoon Pablo hit and damaged other existing deep well in the municipality and the barangays left functional namely; Macopa, and Mamunga.
- On improved spring, there are 5,191 households served with these top five barangays utilizing it, namely: Mt. Diwata, Casoon, San Jose, Banlag, and Pasian.
- Electric power services in the municipality is being provided by the Davao del Norte Electric Cooperative (DANECO) with one sub-station in Brgy. San Jose carrying a capacity of 0ne mega-volt amperes (1 MVA).
- In 2016 data of DANECO, there are 10,332 households provided with electricity services that is 48% of the total households in the municipality covered.
- There are 1,880 connections generating to 1,221,642.00 KW consumed in the municipality of which, 62% were consumed in residential areas, 16% for commercial establishments, 10% industrial firms, 9% for public offices and the remaining 1% is for the street lighting.
A. Local Institutional Capability
The present organization of the Local Government Unit of Monkayo is a divisional structure with two distinct branches: the Executive and the Legislative Branches.
The Executive Branch is composed of 13 departments and seven units, which are divided into services, divisions and sections. The Municipal Mayor heads the organization, from whom all the executive authority and responsibility originates. The Municipal Administrator is positioned next in the hierarchy in so far as it exercises delegated authority from the mayor. He supervises the operations of line and staff departments, offices and units.
The Vice Mayor presided over the Sangguniang Bayan (SB), which is the policy-making body of the municipality. The SB is composed of the Vice Mayor, the elected regular council members, the president of the municipal chapter of the Liga ng mga Barangay and the Indigenous People Mandatory Representative (IPMR). The Office of the Secretary to the Sanggunian serves as the secretary to the council. It also provides legislative, administrative and secretarial support services to the said body.
As the main policy-making body of the local government, the SB, among others, enacts ordinances, approves resolutions and appropriates fund for the general welfare of the Monkayo residents. It likewise regulates activities related to the use of land, street, sidewalks, bridges, parks and other public places and approves of the construction of the same.
A unique feature of the Sangguniang Bayan in Monkayo is that the councilors have their designated political jurisdiction known as the Councilor’s Area of Responsibility (CAR). This serves as an extension of the Mayor’s Office. It aims to ensure that public services are delivered efficiently, effectively and equitably. In this sense, the lead legislators also perform a policy-implementation function. In addition, the councilors act either as chairpersons, vice chairperson and/or members of regular committees of the local development council. Tables 22 shows the list of the Municipal Officials of Monkayo.
Monkayo has a total of 21 barangays of varying sizes. In terms of population, San Isidro is the smallest with 1,417 inhabitants as of 2015 while Poblacion is the largest with 17,435 persons. In terms of land area, Mt. Diwata is the smallest with 672 hectares while Poblacion is the biggest with 4,992. Table 23 shows the list of Barangay Captains of the municipality.
Municipal Officials of Monkayo
List of Barangay Captains
B. Organizational Structure
The existing organizational set up of some other offices and units specifically in the front line services LGU-Monkayo, Compostela Valley Province is not viable when it comes to the chain of command responsibilities as far as salary grade distribution is concerned. The Department Head is receiving salary grade 24 while the next in rank is receiving salary grade 18 which is not in conformity with the provision to the rule on promotion under item No. 15 of CSC Memorandum Circular No. 3, S. 2001 or the Revised Policies on Merit promotion Plan instruct that no government employee may be promoted or transferred to a position which is more than 3-salary grades from his original position.
In like manner, classification of unit heads is inconsistent in terms of salary grades. Some were receiving salary grade 18, 15, 11 & 9 and no administrative support staff in the plantilla positions.
As of December 2016, the municipal government has 945 employees, staff and volunteers, broken into 12 elective (1.29%), 177 permanent (19.01%), 67 casuals (7.20%), three contract of services (0.32%), 320 job orders (34.37%), 257 Barangay Health Worker (2.79%), 26 Barangay Nutrition Scholar (2.79%), 59 Day Care Worker (6.34%), 19 Agricultural Technicians (2.04%) and five coterminous employee (0.54%). This translates to roughly one employee per 100 persons of the population.
C. Governance and Innovations
Monkayo is also renowned for its governance innovations and best practices, for which it received several provincial, regional and national awards. Both the institutions and its employees received various accolades both from the government and non-government agencies.
Among these awards include Best Solid Waste Management Implementer, Seal of Good Housekeeping, Sandugo Award, Red Orchid Award, Bayani Ka! Award, Gawad Saka Award, Corn Quality Achievers Award and among others.
By these recognition, Monkayo has been tapped by some of the national agencies
D. Financial Management
The local fiscal management of Monkayo is well established and manned by adequately trained personnel under the following major offices, namely: Treasury, Accounting, Budget and Planning. The fiscal management is under the Public Finance Management Team (PFMT) and mentored by the Regional Inter-agency Team composed of oversight national government agencies, namely DBM, DILG, NEDA, and BLGF. The Monkayo PFMT-RIAT partnership started in 2014.
Although the LGU’s fiscal management can be considered good as evidenced by quite a few number of awards and recognition, worth to mention is the DILG’s Seal of Good Housekeeping for good financial housekeeping received for the years 2013 and 2014, among others, its internal control system is relatively weak.
There are some concerns that need to be addressed as well. The absence of stock room (bodega) is required for a more effective inventory control. The positional structure of Municipal Treasurer’s Office needs reorganization to meet the challenges and to efficiently manage the business and real property taxation thru local area networking with the offices of Accountant, Assessor and the Permit and Licensing.
The financial operation of local economic enterprise, which comprised more or less 60% of local revenues